[63] Other contributing factors include younger age <60, binge pattern drinking, poor nutritional status, obesity and hepatitis C co-infection. [16] Hepatitis A and hepatitis E behave similarly: they are both transmitted by the fecal–oral route, are more common in developing countries, and are self-limiting illnesses that do not lead to chronic hepatitis. [16][54][55][56] Depending on the strength of the immune response, the types of immune cells involved and the ability of the virus to evade the body's defense, infection can either lead to clearance (acute disease) or persistence (chronic disease) of the virus. [63] It is estimated that as much as 20% of people with AH are also infected with hepatitis C.[126] In this population, the presence of hepatitis C virus leads to more severe disease with faster progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. [150] A large majority of that sum was spent on treating disease symptoms and complications. In most cases, symptoms last less than 2 months, although some people are sick for as long as six months.[1]. Hepatitis pomeni vnetje jeter.Koren besede je nastal iz starogrške besede hepar (slov. [144][145] While hepatitis A infections are self-limited events, they are associated with significant costs in the United States. Acute hepatitis can resolve on its own, progress to chronic hepatitis, or (rarely) result in acute liver failure. [98], Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in its severe form has a one-month mortality as high as 50%. A vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis A, and anti-hepatitis A immunoglobulin is also used. The Sumerians believed that the liver was the home of the soul, and attributed the findings of jaundice to the attack of the liver by a devil named Ahhazu. [29] In alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, a co-dominant mutation in the gene for alpha-1-antitrypsin results in the abnormal accumulation of the mutant AAT protein within liver cells, leading to liver disease. [9] People born in the US between 1945 and 1965 should be screened once (unless they have other exposure risks). within 1 week), IgM antibodies are found in the blood. 1. Acute viral hepatitis follows three distinct phases: Both drug-induced hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis can present very similarly to acute viral hepatitis, with slight variations in symptoms depending on the cause. [29] Characteristic patterns of liver enzyme abnormalities can point to certain causes or stages of hepatitis. Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies inflammation of the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. [31], Excessive alcohol consumption is a significant cause of hepatitis and is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the U.S.[29] Alcoholic hepatitis is within the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease. Wright NMJ, Millson CE, Tompkins CNE (2005). [19] In patients with compensated cirrhosis, treatment is recommended regardless of HBeAg status or ALT level, but recommendations differ regarding HBV DNA levels; AASLD recommends treating at DNA levels detectable above 2x103 IU/mL; EASL and WHO recommend treating when HBV DNA levels are detectable at any level. [29] NASH is recognized as the third most common cause of liver disease in the United States. [62][63][125] Most people who develop AH are men but women are at higher risk of developing AH and its complications likely secondary to high body fat and differences in alcohol metabolism. [107] Hospitalization may be required for particularly severe cases or for pregnant women. [98], Hepatitis C infections each year had been declining since the 1980s, but began to increase again in 2006. [29], In the case of hepatitis B, blood tests exist for multiple virus antigens (which are different components of the virion particle) and antibodies. Diet -A high-calorie diet is recommended. [47] Hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease are both autosomal recessive diseases involving abnormal storage of minerals. A hepatitis B 100-szor fertőzőbb, mint a HIV (AIDS vírusa) és a hasonlóan veszélyes hepatitis C vírus. The onset of hepatitis A usually occurs 15 to 45 days after exposure to the virus, and some infected individuals, especially children, exhibit no clinical manifestations.In the majority of cases, no special treatment other than bed rest is required; most recover fully from the disease. [75][76], For children 12 months of age or older, the vaccination is given as a shot into the muscle in two doses 6–18 months apart and should be started before the age 24 months. [27] In endemic regions, transmission is thought to be associated with exposure during birth and close contact between young infants. [27][98] In approximately two-thirds of patients who develop acute hepatitis B infection, no identifiable exposure is evident. If HBsAg is present, a second test – usually done on the same blood sample – that detects the antibody for the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBcAg) can differentiate between acute and chronic infection. [50] Metabolic diseases such as glycogen storage disorders and lysosomal storage disorders are also implicated. [43] The disease is thought to have a genetic predisposition as it is associated with certain human leukocyte antigens involved in the immune response. [16] Of those acutely infected, 25% become lifetime carriers of the virus. If the vaccine is for hepatitis A only, two doses are given 6–18 months apart depending on the manufacturer. An additional two doses should be administered before the child is 18 months. Most people who are infected recover completely with no permanent liver damage.Practicing go… [73][74] People in these groups who are not already immune can receive the hepatitis A vaccine. MMWR 1999", "Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B Vaccine (Intramuscular Route)", "Phase IV Clinical Trial of Recombinant Hepatitis E Vaccine(Hecolin) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov", "Drinking Levels Defined | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)", "Hepatitis A: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries", "Pinkbook | Hepatitis B | Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases | CDC", "Commentary | U.S. 2013 Surveillance Data for Viral Hepatitis | Statistics & Surveillance  | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "The Epidemiology of Alcoholic Liver Disease", "Enhancing our understanding of current therapies for Hepatitis C virus (HCV)", "Interferon alpha for chronic hepatitis D", "HEV FAQs for Health Professionals | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of STeroids Or Pentoxifylline for Alcoholic Hepatitis (STOPAH): a 2 × 2 factorial randomised controlled trial", "Infection with the delta agent in chronic HBsAg carriers", "Estimation of stage-specific fibrosis progression rates in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis and meta-regression", "Hepatitis A Information | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for Health Professionals | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "Toward a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of hepatitis C in the United States", "Alcoholic hepatitis: current challenges and future directions", "Alcoholic hepatitis and concomitant hepatitis C virus infection", "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: epidemiology, clinical course, investigation, and treatment", "A brief history of hepatitis milestones", "The road not taken or how I learned to love the liver: A personal perspective on hepatitis history", "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976", "Current and Future Burden of Chronic Nonmalignant Liver Disease", "Reducing the neglected burden of viral hepatitis in Africa: Strategies for a global approach", "The economics of treating chronic hepatitis B in Asia", "The impact of hepatitis C burden: an evidence-based approach", "Burden of disease and cost of chronic hepatitis C infection in Canada", "Community Is Reeling From Hepatitis Outbreak", "Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV+ men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Prevalence and burden of HCV co-infection in people living with HIV: a global systematic review and meta-analysis", "A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part 1: Immunization of Infants, Children, and Adolescents", "AASLD guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B", "Safety of tenofovir during pregnancy for the mother and fetus: a systematic review", "Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis", "Case-fatality risk of pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis type E: a systematic review and meta-analysis", Viral Hepatitis at the Centers for Disease Control, Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hepatitis&oldid=999665795, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The recovery phase is characterized by resolution of the clinical symptoms of hepatitis with persistent elevations in, People with poor sanitary habits such as not washing hands after using the restroom or changing diapers, People who do not have access to clean water, People in close contact (either living with or having sexual contact) with someone who has hepatitis A, People traveling to an area with endemic hepatitis A, Born in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B is high (defined as ≥2% of the population), whether or not they have been vaccinated, Born in the United States whose parents are from countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B is very high (defined as ≥8% of the population), and who were not vaccinated, In close contact with (i.e. [60][63][64], Diagnosis of hepatitis is made on the basis of some or all of the following: a person's signs and symptoms, medical history including sexual and substance use history, blood tests, imaging, and liver biopsy. [27], Unlike hepatitis B, most cases of hepatitis C lead to chronic infection. [79][80][81][82] Specifically, these populations include people who are: Screening consists of a blood test that detects hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). [98] It is primarily transmitted via non-sexual contact and via needles. kureba kwenguva inobvira pakutapurirwa kusvika pakuoneka kwezviratidzo, kana muri muvaya vanooneka … [63], Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is projected to become the top reason for liver transplantation in the United States by the year 2020, supplanting chronic liver disease due to hepatitis C.[128] About 20–45% of the U.S. population have NAFLD and 6% have NASH. [58][59] Type I interferons are the cytokines that drive the antiviral response. [29] Alcoholic hepatitis can vary from asymptomatic hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) to symptoms of acute or chronic hepatitis to liver failure. [45] Up to 40% of cases present with signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis. [29] However, liver biopsy is typically not the initial diagnostic test because it is invasive and is associated with a small but significant risk of bleeding that is increased in people with liver injury and cirrhosis. For the mineral of that name, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. He found a higher prevalence of the protein in the blood of patients from developing countries, compared to those from developed ones, and noted associations of the antigen with other diseases like leukemia and Down Syndrome. Occasionally a fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellow tinged skin occurs. The virus is one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause inflammation and affect your liver's ability to function.You're most likely to get hepatitis A from contaminated food or water or from close contact with a person or object that's infected. [29] As the disease progresses, symptoms typical of chronic hepatitis may develop. [82], Given the high risk of perinatal transmission, the CDC recommends screening all pregnant women for HBV at their first prenatal visit. [59] In chronic Hepatitis B and C, natural killer cell function is impaired. Hepatitis is a general term that means inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver. Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). [16] Specific populations at greatest risk include: travelers to endemic regions, men who have sex with men, those with occupational exposure to non-human primates, individuals with clotting disorders who have received clotting factors, individuals with a history of chronic liver disease where co-infection with hepatitis A can lead to fulminant hepatitis, and intravenous drug users (rare). [16][17] In addition to the signs of acute hepatitis, people can also demonstrate signs of coagulopathy (abnormal coagulation studies with easy bruising and bleeding) and encephalopathy (confusion, disorientation, and sleepiness). Learn more. Řadí se mezi alimentární onemocnění.Příznaky jsou v mnoha případech mírné, nebo se vůbec nevyskytují, zvláště u mladých lidí. [82][158] Vertical transmission occurs largely via a neonate's exposure to maternal blood and vaginal secretions during birth. [30], Bacterial infection of the liver commonly results in pyogenic liver abscesses, acute hepatitis, or granulomatous (or chronic) liver disease. [16][98] In the Mediterranean, hepatitis D is predominant among hepatitis B virus co-infected individuals. [153], The largest outbreak of hepatitis A virus in United States history occurred among people who ate at a now-defunct Mexican food restaurant located in Monaca, Pennsylvania in late 2003. [29] However, the degree of elevation (i.e. [98] Close to 780,000 deaths in the world are attributed to hepatitis B. Liver transplantation can be life-saving in patients with fulminant liver failure. [152] That number nearly doubles to $1,227 for people with compensated (stable) cirrhosis, while the monthly cost of people with decompensated (worsening) cirrhosis is almost five times as large at $3,682. vaginal vs. cesarean) has an effect on vertical transmission. [16][17][18] The acute form of hepatitis, generally caused by viral infection, is characterized by constitutional symptoms that are typically self-limiting. [32][108][109] Available treatment options include pentoxifylline (PTX), which is a nonspecific TNF inhibitor, corticosteroids, such as prednisone or prednisolone (CS), corticosteroids with N-acetylcysteine (CS with NAC), and corticosteroids with pentoxifylline (CS with PTX). This is an acute (short-term) type of hepatitis, which usually requires no treatment. [112] Mortality rates in cases of fulminant hepatitis rise over 80%, but those patients that do survive often make a complete recovery. [106], Similar to hepatitis A, treatment of hepatitis E is supportive and includes rest and ensuring adequate nutrition and hydration. It was first provisionally classified as enterovirus 72, but subsequent determinations of its nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed them to be sufficiently distinct to assign the virus to … Fulminant hepatitis most commonly occurs in hepatitis B, D, and E. About 1–2% of cases of hepatitis E can lead to fulminant hepatitis, but pregnant women are particularly susceptible, occurring in up to 20% of cases. Hepatitis A is inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. [104], Hepatitis D is difficult to treat, and effective treatments are lacking. Drugs - People with hepatitis should avoid taking drugs metabolized by the liver. In some countries outside the … [130] NASH is thought to be the primary cause of cirrhosis in approximately 25% of patients in the United States, representing 1–2% of the general population. For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. [29] In late infection and after recovery, IgG antibodies are present and remain in the body for up to years. [2], From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers for the Public", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hepatitis_A&oldid=5832643, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Using ice that was made from contaminated water, Foods that are not cooked are more likely to spread hepatitis A because cooking food will kill the virus. [16][119] In such regions, as much as 90% of children younger than 10 years old have been infected and are immune, corresponding both to lower rates of clinically symptomatic disease and outbreaks. Activity - Many people with hepatitis prefer bed rest, though it is not necessary to avoid all physical activity while recovering. population. [37] However, the National Institutes of Health maintains the LiverTox database for consumers to track all known prescription and non-prescription compounds associated with liver injury. Strict personal hygiene and avoiding raw and unpeeled foods can help prevent an infection.. Once a person has hepatitis A, their immune system makes antibodies to fight the virus. [131], Around 400 B.C., Hippocrates recorded the first documentation of an epidemic jaundice, in particular noting the uniquely fulminant course of a cohort of patients who all died within two weeks. Therefore, the role of screening is to assess immune status in people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, as well as in people with known liver disease for whom hepatitis A infection could lead to liver failure. [50] Congenital or perinatal infection with the hepatitis viruses, toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and syphilis can cause neonatal hepatitis. [30], Of the worms, the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, also known as the dog tapeworm, infects the liver and forms characteristic hepatic hydatid cysts. [129] Of NASH patients who develop cirrhosis, about 2% per year will likely progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. [146] It has been estimated that direct and indirect costs are approximately $1817 and $2459 respectively per case, and that an average of 27 work days is lost per infected adult. [19] Cirrhosis can lead to other life-threatening complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, esophageal varices, hepatorenal syndrome, and liver cancer.[18]. Når der er symptomer, vil de typisk vare omkring otte uger og kan omfatte: kvalme, opkastning, … Rates of mortality increase with progression of the underlying liver disease. Infectious agents include viruses, bacteria, and parasites. 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