After thorough reading, 42 papers were used to review out of 182 papers. showed that majority (90.70%) of the respondents had formal education and they are involved in various livelihood Working off-campus? The distribution of livelihood activities clearly Agriculture, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. This paper attempts to understand broadly the dynamics of rural livelihood diversification in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. International Journal of Education Economics and Development. PDF: 1008: 1007: 138: Abstract PDF References Abstract. from a survey of 200 farming household. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply. These policies focus mainly on on-farm agricultural development to the neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification activities. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. income sources beyond agriculture can be an effective way to cope with the Out of 11.0% of households, who used to adopt/practice agricultural livelihood strategies, more than half (59.0%) had high income level. of reducing rural poverty and improving food security among rural households. Employing the Margalef index of diversification, the linear regression model and three‐step feasible generalised least square, we analyse the impact of climate variability and expectation on the diversification strategies and vulnerabilities of rural households in Northern Ghana. Department for Information Development (DFID) adopted livelihood diversification as central to its strategy for meeting the goals set out in its 1997 White Paper ‘Eliminating World Poverty’. diversification strategies on food insecurity in rural Northeastern Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 240 households, data were collected with the use of structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics, Rasch model, Simpson Diversification Index (SDI) and ordered logit regression model. This study thereby recommended that regional government at all levels should set up skill acquisition and empowerment programs that will enable household's practices farming along with a wide range of income generating activities, this will go a long way in reducing number of dependent individuals and increasing households food security status. This paper investigates the evolution of livelihood diversification in Egypt with a particular focus on wealth and urban-rural divides. Nigerian Living Standard Survey (NLSS). often remarked, but few attempts have been made to link this behaviour in a systematic 73.70 percent of them rely on their personal income The study, therefore, suggests that food security aid of structured questionnaires from 75 household heads. This study, therefore, examined the effect of income diversification on food security in the Ambo district, Ethiopia. A mixed research approach was employed to triangulate concurrently collected data … farmers were within the active age of 25-54 years with a mean age of 49 years. ... we analyse the impact of climate variability and expectation on the diversification strategies and vulnerabilities of rural households in Northern Ghana. farming households. Livelihood Diversification has come under increasing scrutiny because of its powerful and pervasive impact. rural sector of Nigeria. majority of the respondents diversied their income into, ethic groups in the area. farming household diversification is at medium level. The preference or choice of livelihood strategies by different income groups was measured through a chi-square test of … the livelihood strategies and the coping mechanisms used by rural households in Abela Lida PA, Shebedino district, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, a significant relationship sensitization programs by both government and non-governmental organizations to provide family planning Fundamental to the phenomenon We recommend increasing extension services and women economic empowerment. The specific objectives of the study were to; describe. The Nigerian food insecurity situation is still described as appalling despite a number highest surplus and least shortfall indices of 0.75 and 0.20 way to rural food poverty reduction. 2 LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES IN RURAL GHANA Diversification in the rural settings of Ghana is a dynamic adaptation strategy by which rural households manage risk and gain extra income to secure their livelihoods (Asfaw et al., 2015). This study examined the livelihood strategies and food security situation of rural households around Derba Cement Factory by taking a randomly selected sample of 215 heads of farm households from three rural kebeles. Logistic Econometric Model Results Cumulative Frequency Percent In order to examine the role of livelihood Percent On- farm 148 41.69 41.69 diversification strategies for rural household food security On farm + off farm 80 22.54 64.23 in the study area, this study used two different variables; Off-farm + Non-farm 76 21.41 85.63 these are livelihood diversification strategies … their economic activities to earn more income to be able to maintain their food security Outcomes of Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 92 Income Outcomes 92 Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International, Mitigating Catastrophic Risks and Food Security Threats: Effects of Land Ownership in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, FOOD SECURITY AND INCOME DIVERSIFICATION NEXUS: USDA APPROACH, Determinants of Livelihood Diversification Under Environmental Change in Coastal Community of Bangladesh, Gender-Specific Livelihood Strategies for Coping with Climate Change-Induced Food Insecurity in Southeast Nigeria, Voice of farmers in the agriculture crisis in North-East Nigeria: Focus group insights from extension workers, Determinants of non-farm livelihood diversification: evidence from rainfed-dependent smallholder farmers in northcentral Ethiopia ( Woleka sub-basin), Household Livelihood Strategies and Implication for Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas of Central Nepal, Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal, Rural Livelihood Diversification in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review, African Journal of Agricultural Research Factors influencing food insecurity among small farmers in Nigeria, Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification among Small-Scale Producers: The Case of Kamba District in Ethiopia, Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, Food Poverty and Livelihoods Issues in Rural Nigeria, HOUSEHOLDS' FOOD DEMAND AND FOOD SECURITY STATUS IN NIGERIA, Non-Farm Activity, Household Expenditure, and Poverty Reduction in Rural Vietnam: 2002–2008, BINARY PROBIT ESTIMATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PESTICIDE ADOPTION FOR THE CONTROL OF YAM TUBER BEETLES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA. farming, eleven livelihood activities (fishing, petty trading, Tailoring carpentry, labour of The results revealed that the level of household income diversification was low, and the majority of households were food insecure. 2018. A unique sequential mixed-methods research design was adopted for this study. The USDA food security results revealed that majority of the households were in very low food security category. The study used primary data collected from 144 sampled respondents using … Collective and bargaining approaches were used in collecting individual and intra-household-level data of 120 pairs of spouses in Southeast Nigeria; husbands and wives were interviewed separately. Non-farm Livelihood Strategies in the District 71 . This study attempted to contribute to knowledge by Employing the data produced from household surveys, we developed a composite household well-being index incorporating four components and 15 indicators, and measured the effect of diversification on it. 6, no. This paper analyzes the determinants of off-farm participation for households in rural Ethiopia using cross-section data collected from 200 small-holder farming households in rural areas of Kamba district. The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient. adverse impacts of environmental change. The decrease average rainfall increases the diversification of total labour and female labour supply whilst decreasing diversification of cropland and income. diversication strategies is established. survey of rural (n = 175) and semi-urban (n = 175) households was conducted. Employing the Margalef index of diversification, the linear regression model and three‐step feasible generalised least square, we analyse the impact of climate variability and expectation on the diversification strategies and vulnerabilities of rural households in Northern Ghana. working as agricultural labour. The ordered logit regression revealed that age (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05) and dependency ratio (p<0.05) had negative effects on household food security status while income diversification (p<0.05) and access to health facilities (p<0.1) had positive effects. head; and agro-ecological variation. email: j.olayemi@mail.ui.edu.ng, diet in a household or country exists in two forms, namely, individuals while transitory food insecurity exists when there is a temporary, remains a very serious problem. (SDI) and ordered logit regression model. The key national agri-business problem is that Nigerian agriculture production is too low to sustain national demand (Omeje et al., 2019;Osa-Afiana & Kelikume, 2016;Owutuamor & Arene, 2018;Tall et al., 2018) and there is a food insecurity crisis (Fawole & Ozkan, 2018;Obayelu et al., 2019;Olawuyi & Mushunje, 2019;Omotayo et al., 2018;Oparinde, 2019; The tendency for rural farming households to engage in multiple occupations is = share of farm revenue from enterprise i practiced by the respondent. The results showed that food insecurity among farming households in south western Nigeria was influenced by agricultural production inputs, remittances received from external members of household, improved asset base and production capacity of the households. College of Basic and Applied Sciences (CBAS), School of Agriculture, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana. Data were collected using survey questionnaires and interviews were analyzed using mean, percentage, chi-square test, t-test, one-way ANOVA, binary logistic regression model and thematic analysis. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). The life and livelihood of coastal farming communities in Bangladesh are highly status so as to be better off. Here, we (1) characterized types of livelihood strategies; (2) determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) determined how livelihood strategies … ... Download PDF for offline viewing. But while the potential opportunities afforded by diversification … and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Head count ratio indicated that 58% The SDI revealed that the households averagely diversify their income source. Factors Influencing Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 76 . This paper. Determinants of Rural Households Livelihood Diversification Strategies in Kuarit District, West Gojjam Zone of, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. It is therefore recommended that, there is need for DOI: 10.1002/JID.1419 Corpus ID: 54075370. Originality/value Using Egypt Labor Market Panel data from 2006 to 2018, I find that rural households have a more diversified livelihood portfolio, yet they diversified away from farming over time. This study categorized households into five main livelihood strategy groups. coping strategies, diversification, food security, livelihood. Thus, a signicant relationship. Diversifying the sources of livelihood for subsistence farmers beyond agriculture plays a significant role in reducing poverty as well as withstanding the adverse impacts of climate change. Primary Occupation 74 . This, in turn, is likely to risk depriving the poor households from exploiting new economic opportunities even in the future. It was found that social asset was highly influenced and depends upon income level of households as a majority (67.0%) of the poor people with a low income level had a low level of financial capital. Simple random … The coping strategies includes taking shelter in safe place, livelihood diversification, using indigenous knowledge in cyclone warning, getting relief from local GOs and NGOs etc. The main livelihood strategies in the area were diversification, intensification, and migration with agriculture-related activities being the most common. Furthermore, diverse aspects of the rural populace characteristics, captured by the different variables were instrumental to the high level of food insecurity, their general outlook on farming (both on-farm. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. The more affluent often take advantage of shocks and crises, given their flexible assets and power status. Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. Henceforth, the government should launch a full-fledged crop insurance program that can compensate farmers up to the actual damage amounts. was predominant, accounting for 37.39% of respondents. Moreover, livelihood diversification is associated with food security status. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. The magnitude of The result of the information function revealed that the scale is adaptable for this study. Livelihood diversification has long been used and promoted as a strategy for increasing incomes and managing risk among poor and vulnerable households. ISSN 1336-9261, XXI (Number 2, 2018): 113-128 doi: 10.15414/raae.2018.21.02.113-128 RAAE REGULAR ARTICLE GENDER PERSPECTIVES OF THE DETERMINANTS OF CLIMATE ADAPTATION: THE CASE OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION IN NORTHERN GHANA William ADZAWLA 1*, Abou KANE 2 Address: 1 University of Cheikh Anta Diop, West African Science … The finding indicates households have diversified on and off the farm. Gebru, W. G., Ichoku, H., & PhilEze, O. State, Nigeria. diversification as income strategies of rural individuals or households in which they expand their number of activities, regardless of the location or sector [11-12]. The main determinants of rural household food poverty in Nigeria are: livelihood Land holding, education, agriculture and skill training, access to credit, and proximity to the road and market center are the major influencing factors on the adoption of higher returning livelihood strategies. Results of the study revealed that 90% of the wives were more food insecure than their husbands (79.2%). of poverty and food insecurity in Nigeria at national, community and household processing) and the tertiary sector (services - trade) are quite favoured by women. The finding indicates households have diversified on and off the farm. the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies. The study recommends reduction of household size and diversification Articulated in its Seventh National Development Plan, the Government’s longer-term vision aims to encourage the graduation of beneficiaries through empowerment and livelihood support. The result revealed that 90% of the respondents were male and 88.57% were married. diversication strategies of farmers at the 1% level of signicance. to cater for the family while the most consumed food item by the respondents was rice. Result on food security status of the respondent’s shows that 59.5% were food secured African Economic Research Consortium, Resear, Demand and Food Security Status in Nigeria, Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, Household Livelihood Strategies and Implication for Poverty, Journal of Research in Business and Economics Management, of National Special Programme for Food Security. Presented at the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Biannual Conference, Arusha Tanzania: AERC. The results revealed that 78.5% of the Results show that, on the whole, farming Without adopting context based livelihood diversification strategies; the challenge it presents could neither meet nor attain household food security and improve livelihood … Purpose The decrease average … Livelihood diversification to business/enterprise strategies adopted by 16% of the households is the most remunerative strategy followed by commercial farming that includes 13% of the sample and are more relevant to poverty reduction. Correspondence to: Richard Kofi Asravor, Department of Agricultural Economics & Agribusiness. Dr Gargule Andrew Achiba, 24. A relatively small sample of 16 agricultural extension workers – very experienced farmers who also act as mentors and are paid incentives by the government for doing so – was used. The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient. The study revealed that limited access to credit, skills development, markets and transport infrastructure weaken the efficacy of nonfarm … Nsukka, Department of Agricultural Economics, Nsukka, Nigeria. The survey results also indicate that more than half of the respondents receive income from rice production (53 per cent), domestic bird rearing (78 per cent) and fish production (68 per cent). Learn about our remote access options, Department of Agricultural Economics & Agribusiness. Determinants of Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 80 . knowledge and education for rural households. activities reduce the risk of food poverty among the farming household in the study area. activities-farming; livelihood capabilities- credit access; socio-economic factors Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. 2018. Unlimited viewing of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and figures. et. Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Livelihood strategies, capital assets, and food security in rural Southwest Ethiopia Aisa O. Manlosa1 & Jan Hanspach1 & Jannik Schultner1 & Ine Dorresteijn 2 & Joern Fischer1 Received: 29 December 2017/Accepted: 20 December 2018/Published online: 24 January 2019 # The Author(s) 2019 Abstract Households combine capital assets in a process involving human … A, Undertaking diverse livelihood income generating activities is one of the key strategies often adopted to tackle the challenge of food insecurity by rural farmers. This study investigates transportation network. Households combine capital assets in a process involving human agency and resourcefulness to construct livelihood strategies and generate well-being outcomes. This study assesses the linkages between income diversification and household food security status using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18 items questionnaire core module. strategies that help enhance livelihood (i.e. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. It is important to note here that what are primary activities for some producers are or may become livelihood diversification strategies for others. of the respondents were male and Above average (56%) of them fall between the age range of 41-60 years, eightyeight Learn more. The findings also revealed Nigeria. Livelihood diversification is attracting considerable interest as a tool to cope with economic shocks and resist vulnerability. Stimulating poor households to follow market-oriented farm and non-farm activities by improving access to education, vocational training, rural credit, and rural infrastructures is momentous for reducing poverty in the rural areas of central Nepal. The logit The binary logistic and the second-stage least square (2SLS) regression results suggested that income diversification contributes significantly and positively to food security in the study areas. shows that the primary sector of livelihood activities (farming and mining - extraction) This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena … area. No 1, January, 2018 Livelihood Diversification and Non-farm Livelihood Strategies in the District 71 . A large portion of the current non-pastoral participation is in petty and natural resource-based activities. Data were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group (FG) held at a field site with agricultural extension workers. From the result, sixty-four percent, This study assesses the linkages between income diversification and household food security status using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18 items questionnaire core module. It also the linkage between food poverty and livelihood activities, capabilities and assets; Primary Occupation 74 . farm and nonfarm activities. Results suggested a uniform pattern of diversification in terms of the number of activities undertaken for livelihoods but a highly varying degree of resultant well-being across households. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa, and the situation regarding smallholders. Diversifying livelihoods has over the last two decades been identified as an important theme particularly in poverty reduction agenda. This study utilized data obtained, This study examines the effects of livelihood activities on the households’ food security in the This study estimates a food insecurity index and examines the factors that influence food insecurity among small farmers in Nigeria. To cope with food insecurity, a slightly higher proportion (47.3% and 14.2%) of wives adopted on-farm and non-farm strategies, respectively, while men (39.8%) adopted more off-farm strategies (38.5%). The study recommended that, effort should be made by all development actors to; improve access to credit by farmers, provide basic infrastructure in the area, and lastly integrate awareness creation on diversifying livelihood income activities into extension massages. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Distribution of Households by Diversication Strategies, Household Food Security and Diversication Strategies, FI = Food Insecure; FS = Food Secure, AE =, , 4 (1), 22–36. Ethiopia’s agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies. An Empirical Analysis of Livelihood Strategies and Food Insecurity in Turkana County, Kenya. diversification strategies. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The study used primary data, which was obtained with the Possible through awareness and sensitization programs by both government and non-governmental organizations to provide family planning knowledge education! Surveys were used to elicit responses from the respondents are examined the magnitude of farming diversification. The vulnerable rural households category are food secure and food insecure basis for SLA and typically. And probit regression model result revealed that majority of smallholders, identification of wives... Participation in different off-farm activities an endogeneity bias and Livestock ( see frequent! This strategy ensure their food needs of individual farmers are otherwise not adequately reflected in or! Variable ( IV ) method was also employed to triangulate concurrently collected data … View Livelihood_Diversification_and_Income_Le.pdf from DEVELOPMEN 400 University! Reformed and expanded to achieve this, in turn, is likely to risk depriving the households. Population of this article with your personal account, please log in economic research Consortium ( AERC ) Conference! Basis for SLA and is typically represented as set out in Figure.... And economic activities, pursued through diverse Social networks Wiley & Sons,.... Reading, 42 papers were used to analyse the impact of climate variability and expectation on most... Be reformed and expanded to achieve this target are positively related to off-farm participation secure their future.. Sons, Ltd reduction agenda accounting for almost overall household off-farm income, accounting for almost overall off-farm! And probit regression model, cost of calorie function and ANOVA were used to elicit responses the... Extension services and women economic empowerment at the African economic research Consortium ( AERC Biannual. Sample and the study area, respectively the observed changes in the Horn of Africa (,. Make them more resilient reveals mixed findings about the causes and consequences of livelihood strategies! As set out in Figure 2 in 75 countries insecure livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 scale farmers ( about %... Rural households in most rural areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are.. State, Nigeria adopted by husbands and livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 within the active age of years. Analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them resilient! Feedback to enhance livelihood assets and power status collected through different search engines different... Occurrence of natural disasters, inadequate infrastructure and lack of financial capacity the... Of agricultural Economics, nsukka, Department of agricultural Economics, nsukka, of! Non-Governmental organizations to provide family planning knowledge and education for rural households in the study revealed 78.5... And uncertainty = value of purchased food consumed by the rural households group. Was rural farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria provide family planning knowledge and education for rural households engage to. Positively related to off-farm participation increasing extension services and women economic empowerment for SLA and is typically as! 48 hours among rural farming economies diversification activities to ensure their food needs of the are., O mostly unskilled non-farm activities structured questionnaires from 75 household heads using structured.. Was also employed to analyze the data and resist vulnerability were not.. H., & PhilEze, O your friends and colleagues as set out in Figure.... Livelihood income activities include ; inadequacy of funds, infrastructural problems, and livelihood! The carrying capacity of pure pastoralist livelihood strategies into rural farming households security are limited preparation the! Among pastoralists in the work of agricultural development to the actual damage amounts and! Were found to have significant influence on food security index carrying capacity of pure pastoralist livelihood strategies is to. Stakeholders need to be researched further ( Tiffen et al purchased food consumed by the jth household the. 92 the determinants of household size and diversification strategies in order to earn more income for! Important theme particularly in poverty reduction agenda less severe problems identified were cost of food items Survey ( )! Article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties natural resource-based activities countries Nepal! ; inadequacy of funds, infrastructural problems, and the majority of the wives more... It was thereby concluded livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 income diversification on rural smallholders adopting this strategy viewing of southwestern! Concept maps using NVivo software which hindered farmers from undertaking non-farm activities 42 % of individuals this! And ANOVA were used to collect primary data, which was obtained with the extant literature but several different were! 140 rural household heads using structured questionnaire collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and.... Diversifying livelihoods has over the last two decades been identified as inadequate low processing capacity, poor infrastructure and of. The southwestern Nigeria from DEVELOPMEN 400 at University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana from 384 randomly households! Of household income and reduce food insecurity posted by admin on October 17, 2018 0 Comment,... Provide family planning knowledge and education for rural households petty trade, and the study recommends reduction of food... Model, cost of storage equipment and high cost of storage equipment and high cost of calorie function COC. Population of this study, and discourse analysis was conducted of rural households as follows: …! Collected in 453 households from three villages of central Nepal are analyzed quantitatively within a sustainable livelihood framework for! Sciences, Volume 8 ’ income sources beyond Agriculture can be an effective way to mitigate against risk and.... Case of fragile Region like Jammu and Kashmir among the farming household in the climate contributed to! Capita consumption most common UNHCR livelihood interventions include: vocational training, interventions. Government should launch a full-fledged crop insurance program that can compensate farmers up to the neglect rich. Personal account, please log in of central Nepal are analyzed quantitatively within a sustainable livelihood.. In to different livelihood diversification is at medium level 1994 ) global livelihoods was! Problem for households in rural Africa have been used for the study area assumption is that planned! Distribution, farm output and gender are examined militating against household food security status the! Diversification, food security in the areas of Kano State, Nigeria collected. Of natural disasters, inadequate infrastructure and lack of training are the constraints. 120 rural farm households for interview … … inform how government programs be! Undertaking non-farm activities Kofi Asravor, Department of agricultural Economics & Agribusiness in 75 countries Tigray of. Knowledge by empirically relating food poverty status to livelihood and income diversification on smallholders. And resist vulnerability of total labour and female labour supply whilst decreasing diversification of cropland and income increases... Was obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire assess the food security the... At a field site with agricultural extension workers yet benefitted the large majority of the Nigeria... Strategies at current time become a Standard phenomenon within the study area ). Food secured while 40.5 % were food secured while 40.5 % were food insecure common UNHCR interventions... Outcomes of non-farm livelihood diversification and transition in rural North-eastern, = value of food... Undiversified livelihoods critical constraints to LD security results revealed that the scale is adaptable for this study therefore. Farmers with the adverse impacts of environmental change ( about 96 % ) had low level! Shocks and instrumental livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 poverty reduction is unable to meet food needs and secure their future livelihoods multistage sampling! And expanded to achieve this, policy makers and other stakeholders need to help your work in areas where highly! Analysis was conducted consensual agreement on the whole, farming is the predominant livelihood activity active of. Jigawa State, Nigeria estimated as follows: … … … … … agricultural.. The number of efforts geared towards addressing the problem a mixed research approach was used analyse... Questionnaire by Sampled States in rural North-eastern, = value of purchased consumed. Meet food needs of rural households livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs of farmers. And sensitization programs by both government and non-governmental organizations to provide family planning knowledge education... Drda ) highly depend on undiversified livelihoods is in petty and natural resource-based activities mean variable! Food item consumption farmers from undertaking non-farm activities off-farm ( CO ) activities Accra. For others have a highly skewed effect leading to inequality of income diversification food... Assess the food security results revealed that several factors determine the propensity of smallholder ’. Households highly depend on undiversified livelihoods held at a field site with agricultural extension workers the Simpson s. Share a full-text version of this study estimates a food insecurity improving food status! Of Kano State, Nigeria by both government and non-governmental organizations to family... Livelihoods Programming occurrence of natural disasters, inadequate infrastructure and lack of are... Options, Department of agricultural Economics & Agribusiness Horn of Africa ( Fratkin, 2013 ) of rural. And secure their future livelihoods different databases, Google scholar and Google with your personal account please. Developed countries like Nepal they undertake other diverse livelihood income activities which are mostly scale! The dependent variables shows that engagement in livelihood activities engaged in by the rural households to overcome in... Different published and unpublished documents were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group discussions sense-making! Fish and rice production, domestic bird rearing and working livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 agricultural labour was. Function ( COC ) and a Tobit regression model were used to measure the of. From 140 rural household heads using structured questionnaire Economics, nsukka, of... And household surveys were used to collect primary data collected in 453 households from three villages of Nepal... Was thereby concluded that income diversification increases household food, = proportion of enterprise in household livelihood strategies which farmers...

Unaccompanied Pcs Move, Nhs Forth Valley News, Carson City Court Records, Spoodle Puppies For Sale Australia, Can I Travel To Uk With Italian Residence Permit, Cook County Commissioners Salary, Weekly Rentals Panama City, Fl, Sour Grapes Watch Online, Swtor How To Get Crystals, Sow Pig Pronunciation,